Practical wisdom and cunning intelligence
The roots of learning and education
The Greek civilization was atune to the reconciliation of opposites and the acknowledgement of ambiguities. Rules were profoundly linked to their transgression. An ethical life did not mean necessarily abiding by the rules but rather the practice of the metis. Practical knowledge was considered crucial to the Greeks, as it was the road to both practical wisdom (phronesis) and cunning intelligence (metis). It was in the interaction based on this knowledge, that the Greeks saw the roots of learning and education. They saw practical knowledge as the essential source of all wisdom, but also of all ruse.